12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

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IASbhai 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

The man who moves a mountain begins by carrying away small stones. – Confucius

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2021

Antibody cocktail may protect against COVID-19

      HEADLINES:

Study says antibody cocktail may protect against COVID-19

      WHY IN NEWS:

The experimental antibody cocktail which U.S. President Donald Trump received when he tested positive for COVID-19 offers benefits against the novel coronavirus infection

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science : Health : Disease

      ISSUE: 

Cocktail of two antibodies targeting the coronavirus spike protein could be used to neutralise the pathogen

MILD AND SEVERE CASES

  • The researchers tested REGN-COV2 in rhesus macaques, which manifest mild COVID-19 symptoms.
  • Which show symptoms that are much more severe, including rapid weight loss.
  • They found that when the cocktail was administered three days before challenging the macaques with the virus.

The treatment almost completely blocked establishment of infection.

  • This ability of REGN-COV2 “matches or exceeds the effects recently shown in vaccine efficacy studies using the same animal models.”

CLEARING VIRAL LOAD

  • These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of (this approach) to both protect from and treat SARS-CoV-2 disease.

With macaques on one day after infection, there was faster viral clearance than in controls who had not been treated with the cocktail.

  • REGN-COV2 based therapy may offer clinical benefit in both prevention and treatment settings of COVID-19 disease.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Further research in multiple animal models is needed to test the effectiveness of the formulation.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Synedrella Yellow Vein Clearing Virus

      HEADLINES:

Biological plant-virus ‘arms race’ uncovered

      WHY IN NEWS:

How tiny geminiviruses that measure a mere 20 nanometres can enter large plants and break through their defences

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Science and technology

      ISSUE: 

When the virus attacks the plant, it produces vein-clearing symptoms which make the plant look beautiful, but hinders flowering and fruiting.

SYNEDRELLA YELLOW VEIN CLEARING VIRUS

  • Plants and viruses are constantly involved in a race to outdo one another, and their lives literally depend on this.
  • National Centre of Biological Sciences (NCBS-TIFR), Bengaluru, has discovered a new virus called Synedrella Yellow Vein Clearing Virus and the plants it attacks.

The virus was isolated from a plant named Synedrella nodiflora, and it was able to infect tobacco and tomato plant .

LARGE FAMILY

This virus is a representative of the Begomovirus family of viruses.

  • Begomoviruses are a large family with about 400 members.
  • They infect economically important plants and are a major reason for crop loss.

ATTACKS, COUNTER-ATTACKS

  • The virus first attacks the plant, and the plant has defences that are actually counter-attacks.
  • In turn, the virus develops a counter-counter-attack by trying to escape being destroyed by the plant’s mechanisms.
  • When the virus attacks the plant, it produces vein-clearing symptoms which make the plant look beautiful.
  • The fact, however, is that this does not make it better for the plant.
  • It actually makes it difficult for the plant to produce flowers and fruits.

Without BetaC1, a viral protein, the virus will not be able to defeat the host attacks .

  • In turn, the plant develops defence mechanisms to destroy the virus.
  • It targets the protein called BetaC1 made by the virus which helps in successful infection and intracellular movement within the plant.

Plants degrade BetaC1 protein of virus by tagging this protein with another smaller protein called ubiquitin.

VIRAL RESPONSE

  • The virus uses the plant’s machinery to create a small modification of the BetaC1 protein.

It adds a tiny protein called SUMO to the betaC1 protein in a process termed SUMOylation.

  • BetaC1 hijacks the SUMO pathway machinery of the plants and makes itself a substrate for SUMOylation.
  • BetaC1 mimics or tricks the host SUMOylation machinery as if it is one of the host plant protein requiring SUMOylation.

TINY VIRUS

  • Viruses very similar to this virus are the biggest threat to crop production throughout world.

Apparently, in infected fields, up to 60% of horticultural crops are lost due to begomoviral infection.

  • Viruses can range in size from 5 nanometre to 300 nanometre.
  • The above virus falls under the category geminivirus, is among the smaller ones, measuring about 20 nanometres.
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus, for instance is about five times larger than these.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

NEW RESULTS

  • These concepts are new to plant–pathogen interactions.
  • Our results also provide newer tools to identify and generate plants that can resist viruses.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Spiders spin

      HEADLINES:

Spiders spin a tale of migration

      WHY IN NEWS:

Constructed histories of sister spider families show how they may have dispersed from India to Southeast Asia 55-38 million years ago

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Biodiversity

      ISSUE: 

Spider subfamily : Theotiminae, might have come from Africa, whereas a sister family, Ochyroceratinae, has a South American

EVOLUTION OF SPIDER

  • About 55 million years ago, when the Indian Subcontinent collided with Asia.
  • Many plants and animals migrated from India to other parts of Asia.
  • This means they had more than one common evolutionary ancestor .

ROLE OF CLIMATE

  • The Tibetan Plateau , colder and drier climate was also unsuitable for the spiders.

The spiders were found in leaf litter in the forests, while in others they were occupying caves.

  • Most caves have an almost constant temperature and high humidity throughout the year, providing suitable shelters for theotimines

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Species in a wet environment can live in the litter or caves.
  • Whereas species in an environment with low precipitation are more often found in caves.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Winged ‘Infiltrators’

      HEADLINES:

Scientists welcome these winged ‘infiltrators’

      WHY IN NEWS:

Pak butterfly, Chinese dragonfly, miles from known habitats, now listed in India

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Environment and Ecology

      ISSUE: 

Rare winged visitors from across India’s western and eastern borders have been welcomed by naturalists

RARE WINGED VISITORS

  • Miles away from their native habitats, a Pakistani butterfly and Chinese dragonfly have been recorded by citizen scientists.
  • Non-professionals who contribute to scientific research and data collection — for the first time in the India.

The butterfly, Spialia zebra, was found in Dungarpur district of Rajasthan.

  • The dragonfly Atratothemis reelsi was recorded in southern Arunachal Pradesh’s Namdapha Tiger Reserve.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The zebra skipper is difficult to observe because it is quite small and flies rapidly low over the ground.
  • India now has 1,328 species of butterflies.
SUGGESTED READING : NATIONAL BUTTERFLY CAMPAIGN 
     SOURCES:THE HINDU  | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Follow SOP in crimes against women

      HEADLINES:

‘Follow SOP in crimes against women’

      WHY IN NEWS:

MHA asks States to ensure mandatory action by police, underlines need to record victim’s statement

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Home Affairs
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 : Issues related to women

      ISSUE: 

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has issued an advisory to all States regarding “mandatory action by the police in crimes against women”.

12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT, 1872

  • The Ministry reiterated that the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.

It provides that the statement, written or verbal, by a person who is dead shall be treated as relevant fact in the investigation. 

  • The MHA also said Section 173 of the Code of Criminal Procedure provides for completion of investigation in rape cases within two months.

SUPREME COURT RULING

Hon’ble Supreme Court in its order :

PURSHOTTAM CHOPRA & ANR. V. STATE

  • A person being offered as dying declaration and satisfies all the requirements of judicial scrutiny, cannot be discarded merely because it has not been recorded by a Magistrate .

MHA has provided an online portal called Investigation Tracking System for Sexual Offences for monitoring the same.

  • This is available exclusively to law enforcement officers.
  • The law also enables the police to register FIR or a ‘Zero FIR’ (in case the crime is committed outside the jurisdiction of police station) .

OFFICIALS ACCOUNTABLE

  • Section 166 A(c) of the IPC provides for punishment to a public servant for failure to record FIR in relation to cognisable offences, including cases of sexual assault.

Section 164-A of the Cr.P.C. provides that in rape/sexual assault investigation.

  • The victim shall be examined by a registered medical practitioner under consent within 24 hours from the time of receiving the information relating to the commission of such offence.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The MHA also asked States to adhere to the guidelines issued by the Directorate of Forensic Science Services.

These guidelines include  collection, preservation and transportation of forensic evidence in sexual assault cases.

  • In order to facilitate the State Police, Bureau of Police Research and Development has issued Sexual Assault Evidence CollectionKits to every State/UT.
  • It is necessary to use these SAEC kits in every case of sexual assault reported.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Coin of Rs.100

      HEADLINES:

Prime Minister to release the commemorative coin of Rs.100 denomination.

      WHY IN NEWS:

It will be in honour of Smt Vijaya Raje Scindia through a virtual ceremony tomorrow

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Culture
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2: Miscellaneous

      ISSUE: 

The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi  will release a commemorative coin of Rs 100 in honour of SmtVijayaRajeScindia

  • Smt Vijaya Raje Scindia is popularly known as the Rajmata of Gwalior.

The special commemorative coin was minted by the Finance Ministry as a part of these  celebrations.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The coin is being released in  celebration of  birth centenary of Vijaya Raje Scindia.

     SOURCES:PIB | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Feluda -Paper Strip Test

      HEADLINES:

Paper-strip virus test to be out soon

      WHY IN NEWS:

India is looking at availability of several types of vaccines’

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Health
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      ISSUE: 

Health Ministry would soon roll out the FELUDA paper-strip test for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis.

12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

FELUDA

DEVELOPED BY

This has been developed by the CSIR-IGIB and approved by the Drug Controller General of India for a commercial launch.

FEATURES

The test showed 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity.

  • Comparatively , RT-PCR kit has 95% sensitivity and at least 99% specificity.

VARIOUS FACTORS

  • It is critical to prioritise vaccine delivery based on factors such as risk of exposure, co-morbidity among various population groups.

The prioritisation of groups shall be based on two key considerations:

  • Occupational hazard and risk of exposure to infection, and the risk of developing severe disease and increased mortality.
  • On the issue of emergency-use authorisation of vaccines and adequate safety and efficacy data is required for approval.

DOSES

  • The vaccine by Serum Institute of India and Bharat Biotech requires two doses.
  • The Cadila Healthcare vaccine requires three.
  • For other vaccines in pre-clinical stages, the dosing is being tested.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The central government had so far, in the first phase, released ₹3,000 crore to States and UTs to battle the pandemic.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU | 12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Beaten or broken Report : World Bank

      HEADLINES:

School closure may cost India dear

      WHY IN NEWS:

Poor productivity will cause a major dent in future earnings:World Bank report
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Education

      ISSUE: 

The extended closure of schools amid the COVID-19 pandemic could dent India’s future earnings by anywhere between $420 billion and $600 billion

TITLE

“Beaten or broken:Informality and COVID-19”

PUBLISHED BY

World Bank

KEY POINTS

  • Depleted learning levels of students will translate into poorer productivity going forward, the World Bank has said.

As many as 5.5 million students could drop out of schools across South Asia.

  • Substantial learning losses for those who remain enrolled in schools, would cost South Asia as much as $622 billion in future earnings.

12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

FAR-REACHING IMPACT

South Asian governments spend only $400 billion a year on primary and secondary education.

  • So the total loss in economic output would be substantially higher.
  • The average child in South Asia may lose $4,400 in lifetime earnings once having entered the labour market, equivalent to 5% of total earnings.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • This figure could climb further to $880 billion.
  • As per a more pessimistic scenario envisaged by the bank on the lifetime impact of school closures on the productivity of this generation of students.

MASSIVE LOSSES

  • Education came to a standstill and efforts to teach children during school closures proved challenging.

The estimated costs of the school closures in terms of learning and earning losses are substantial .

  • These have kept 391 million students out of school in primary and secondary education, further complicating efforts to resolve the learning crisis.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU |12th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

DISCOVER MORE : Important Daily Current Affairs for UPSC PRELIMS 2021

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