16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

“What we fear doing most is usually what we most need to do.” – Tim Ferriss

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2021

Progress Towards Regional Measles Elimination : Report

      HEADLINES:

India among 6 countries with highest tally of infants who didn’t get measles vaccine: report

      WHY IN NEWS:

A total of 1.2 million children did not receive the first dose of measles-containing-vaccine (MCV1) in 2019 in India, accounting for nearly half of the world’s total along with the remaining five countries.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Report

      ISSUE: 

India was among six countries with the highest number of infants who had not received the vaccine against measles 

  • To control measles outbreaks , vaccination coverage rates with the required MCV1 and MCV2 must reach 95 per cent and be maintained at national and subnational levels.
  • The contagious viral disease surged worldwide in 2019 reaching the highest number of reported cases in 23 years .

PROGRESS TOWARDS REGIONAL MEASLES ELIMINATION WORLDWIDE

REPORT TITLE

  • Progress Towards Regional Measles Elimination Worldwide 2000-2019

PUBLISHED BY

  • World Health Organisation and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

KEY HIGHLIGHTS

  • A total of 1.2 million children did not receive the first dose of measles-containing-vaccine (MCV1) in 2019 in India.
  • This accounts for nearly half of the world’s total .

The remaining five countries — Nigeria (3.3 million), Ethiopia (1.5 million), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (1.4 million), Pakistan (1.4 million), and Philippines (0.7 million).

  • The report states that cases across the world increased to 8,69,770 in 2019, the highest number reported since 1996 with a rise in all WHO regions.
  • Global measles deaths climbed nearly 50 per cent since 2016, claiming an estimated 2,07,500 lives in 2019 alone, it said.
  • The report cite a failure to vaccinate children on time with two doses of MCV1 and MCV2 as the main driver of these increases in cases and deaths.
  • These data send a clear message that we are failing to protect children from measles in every region of the world.
  • We must collectively work to support countries and engage communities to reach everyone, everywhere with the measles vaccine and stop this deadly virus.

COVID SHADOW ON MEASLES CRISIS

  • To control measles , vaccination coverage rates with the required MCV1 and MCV2 must reach 95 per cent and be maintained at national and subnational levels.
  • MCV1 coverage has been stagnant globally for over a decade at between 84 and 85 per cent.
  • MCV2 coverage has been steadily increasing but is at 71 per cent now.

Vaccination coverage against measles remains well below the 95 per cent or higher needed with both doses to control measles and prevent outbreaks.

  • This is why countries urgently need to prioritise measles catch-up immunisation.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The Covid-19 pandemic occupying health systems across the world, we cannot afford to take our eye off the ball when it comes to other deadly diseases.

Measles is entirely preventable; in a time in which we have a powerful, safe and cost-effective vaccine nobody should still be dying of this disease.

  • Covid-19 has resulted in dangerous declines in immunisation coverage, leading to increased risk of measles outbreaks.
     SOURCES:  THE IE | 16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

Forest rights claims of 1,200 tribals rejected

      HEADLINES:

Forest rights claims of 1,200 tribals rejected

      WHY IN NEWS:

NGOs in Karnataka alleged that review was done cursorily, fear that more applications may be rejected

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 : 3 : Forest Right Acts : Forests

      ISSUE: 

Over 1,200 tribals in Hunsur taluk of Mysuru district stare at an uncertain future as their review petition for recognition of their claims over forest land .

  • This is under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, has been rejected by the local authorities.
  • NGOs fear more applications may be rejected and are bracing for a showdown with the authorities on the grounds that the review was done cursorily.

THE FOREST RIGHTS ACT 2006

  • The act was passed in December 2006.
  • It deals with the rights of forest-dwelling communities over land and other resources.

The Act grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities, partially correcting the injustice caused by the forest laws.

PROVISIONS OF THE 2006 ACT

  • The Act recognizes that tribal and other traditional forest-dwelling communities would be hard put to provide documentary evidence for their claims.

Rule 13 of the Act, therefore, stipulates that the gram sabhas should consider more than one evidence in determining forest rights.

  • The rule sanctions a wide range of evidence, including “statements by village elders”, “community rights” and physical attributes such as houses, huts etc.

IMPLEMENTATION

  • The recent order is based on affidavits filed by the States, which does not make clear whether the due process of law was observed before the claims were rejected.
  • The forest land claims of these tribes and forest-dwellers are mostly rejected by the States.

Being poor and illiterate, living in remote areas, they do not know the appropriate procedure for filing claims.

  • The gram sabhas, which initiate the verification of their claims, are low on awareness of how to deal with them.
  • The rejection orders were not even communicated to these communities.

BACKGROUND

  • The symbiotic relationship between forests and forest-dwelling communities found recognition in the National Forest Policy, 1988.

The policy called for the need to associate tribal people in the protection, regeneration and development of forests.

  • Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, was enacted to protect the marginalised socio-economic class of citizens.
  • It balance the right to environment with their right to life and livelihood.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The Supreme Court in 2019 ordered the eviction of nearly a million people across India, whose claims under the forest rights acts had been rejected.
  • But the court stayed its earlier order and directed all State governments to file a review petition and submit a report.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | 16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

United Nations Peace Keeping (UNPK) missions

      HEADLINES:

India, U.S. keen on training peace missions

      WHY IN NEWS:

India is among top troop contributors to the UN; China is now scaling up its personnel for missions

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: UNPK

      ISSUE: 

China is significantly scaling up its troop contribution for United Nations Peace Keeping (UNPK) missions.

  • The U.S. is keen on undertaking joint training of Southeast Asian countries in the UN peacekeeping and discussions are under way,” an official source said on Friday.

UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING (UNPK)

  • Peacekeeping has proven to be one of the most effective tools available to the UN to assist host countries navigate the difficult path from conflict to peace. 
  • Peacekeeping has unique strengths, including legitimacy, burden sharing, and an ability to deploy and sustain troops.
  • UN peacekeepers provide security and the political and peacebuilding support to help countries make the difficult, early transition from conflict to peace.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

UN Peacekeeping is guided by three basic principles:

  1. Consent of the parties
  2. Impartiality
  3. Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.

India has consistently been among the top troop contributing nations to the UN and is the fifth largest with 5,424 personnel in eight countries.

  • In 2016, India and the U.S. began a joint annual initiative “UN Peacekeeping Course for African Partners” .
  • This was to build and enhance the capacity of African troop and police-contributing countries to participate in the U.N. and regional peacekeeping operations.

BUDGETARY ALLOCATION

China is significantly expanding its troop contribution to the UN in addition to the funding.

  • The U.S. on the other hand has never contributed ground troops but contributes 27% of the U.N. peacekeeping budget.
  • It currently has over 2,500 troops in various UN missions and has committed another 8,000 troops as standby.
  • Once implemented, it will make China the largest provider of troops to the UNPK.

China contributes 12% of the UN regular general budget and 15% of the peacekeeping budget.

  • India’s contribution to the regular budget is 0.83% and 0.16% of the peacekeeping budget.

51 MISSIONS IN ALL

  • India has so far participated in 51 of the 71 missions and contributed over 2 lakh personnel.

It has troop deployment in Lebanon, Golan Heights, Congo and South Sudan in addition to staff officers in other missions.

  • India has also set up two field hospitals in South Sudan and one in Congo.
  • Since 2018, India has co-opted a contingent from Kazakhstan at the mission in Lebanon.
  • There are currently 13 peacekeeping operations led by the Department of Peace Operations.

16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

CURRENT UNPK MISSIONS AND COUNTRIES | SOURCES : unpeacekeeping.org

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Bhutan too has expressed interest in joining a UN mission within the Indian contingent.
  • We have around 5,500 troops in eight countries of Africa and West Asia.
  • Their contribution has been applauded by all and Indian troops are the most sought after.
  • The first batch of 200 personnel from the contingent to South Sudan is scheduled to leave on November 27.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | 16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

Ban on opinion polls

      HEADLINES:

Former CEC calls for a ban on opinion polls

      WHY IN NEWS:

Allow EC to deregister parties: Quraishi

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : Election Commission

      ISSUE: 

Former Chief Election Commissioner S.Y. Quraishi on Sunday called for a ban on opinion polls

ELECTORAL REFORMS

KEY POINTS

  1. He suggested counting of votes from the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) slips instead of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs).
  2. He flagged the problem of “criminalisation”, with 30%-40% of the members of any legislature having pending criminal cases.
  3. Removal of Election Commissioners can be removed on the recommendation of the CEC while the removal of the CEC is by impeachment.
  4. They [ECs] feel like they are on probation.
  5. The EC should have the power to de-register political parties.
  6. There are lots of defunct and bogus parties that only exist for “money laundering”.
  7. Opinion polls should be banned.

EC had been a “powerful neutral umpire” and never missed a deadline for elections.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The above recommendations are cool ! Note them down in your Mains book.
  • They will serve the purpose for a long long time.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU  | 16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

‘Accused can get bail if probe is not over in time’

      HEADLINES:

‘Accused can get bail if probe is not over in time’

      WHY IN NEWS:

Law specifies detention periods: SC

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : SC : Fundamental Rights : Arrest and detention

      ISSUE: 

THE VERDICT

An accused, irrespective of the merits of the case against him, should be granted “default” or “complusive” bail if the investigating agency does not complete the probe within a prescribed time limit-SC

“In England, even a person accused of grave offences such as treason could not be indefinitely detained in prison till commencement of the trial”.-Justice U.U. Lalit

The court held that an accused has an “indefeasible right” to default bail under Section 167(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure if the probe agency failed to complete the investigation on time.

SECTION 167 CRPC

  • Under Section 167, an accused can be detained in custody for a maximum of 90 days .
  • This is for for a crime punishable with death, life imprisonment or a sentence of over 10 years.

It is 60 days of detention if the probe relates to any other offence.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

These time-limits were set to ensure that agencies do not use the ruse of an ongoing probe to keep people behind bars indefinitely.

  • Magistrates have to mandatorily inform the accused, especially those from the poor sections, of their statutory right to apply for default bail.
     SOURCES:  THE HINDU | 16th Nov Current Affairs News Analysis

 

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