25th June | Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020 |

Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020 | 25th June 2020

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2020.

“What seems to us as bitter trials are often blessings in disguise.” –Oscar Wilde

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

Arctic Amplification

      HEADLINES:

Boiling Siberia shows temperature swings may be increasing: Experts

      WHY IN NEWS:

The warming of the Arctic, as seen by the Siberian heatwave, may also impact western disturbances in India

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1:3:Global Warming : GHG

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS keep an eye on the definitions . Geography of this area is also equally important . In your Prelims book make a table for important Jet streams vs Winds of Siberia .

For MAINS you have to grasp the consequences of this issue and its impact on India .

      ISSUE: 

Verkhoyansk, a town in Siberia, has recorded the highest temperature in the Arctic circle in the last 140 years at 38 degree celsius.  

Verkhoyansk in Siberia, shown here by the red dot, is usually known as one of the coldest towns in the world. Photo: Google Earth

Verkhoyansk in Siberia, shown here by the red dot, is usually known as one of the coldest towns in the world. Photo: Google Earth Verkhoyansk in Siberia, shown here by the red dot, is usually known as one of the coldest towns in the world.
SOURCES : DownToEarth

ARCTIC AMPLIFICATION :

The increased rate of warming is because of a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification in which the melting ice hastens the process of warming by exposing areas that are not good at reflecting back heat into the atmosphere.

WARMING UP ARCTIC REGION :

  • This is around 18°C higher than the normal temperature for this time of the year for the place.

The town is in the Guinness book of world records for the largest temperature range it experiences — from some -67 °C to some 37°C.

  • This is consistent with the consequences of the decrease in the Arctic Sea ice cover and reduction in ice thickness.
  • The Arctic region is warming at twice the rate as the rest of the world because of anthropogenic green house gas emissions.
  • This creates a feedback loop between melting ice and rising temperatures, amplifying the impact of warming.

GEO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES :

  • Arctic warming increases the north-south migrations of the polar jet stream, which is a permanent band of winds over the Arctic region.
  • This means that some places get warm subtropical air coming up to Arctic latitudes and some places get Arctic air coming down into subtropics.

  The jet stream is like the fence between the cold high pressure air of the Arctic and the warm low pressure air of the subtropics.

  • If this fence swings north-south then the cold and warm air follow the jet stream.

IMPACT ON INDIA :

  • The impacts of a warming Arctic are not limited to the region but can be felt as far as here in India in various ways.
  • For instance, western disturbances respond to the pressure variations associated with the jet stream swings.
  • The western disturbances are extra-tropical storms that originate in the Mediterranean and travel to India on the sub-tropical jet stream.

  They cause rainfall in north west, northern and north eastern India during the winter and spring months and snowfall in the high altitude regions.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The Arctic ice is projected to continue to melt away due to warming and may even disappear in a few decades.
  • This means that more extreme weather in the mid-latitudes might become commonplace.
     SOURCES:DownToEarth

‘Rufinamide’

      HEADLINES:

INST develops nanotechnology-based low-cost, method for the production of antiepileptic drug ‘Rufinamide’

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Drugs : The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS make a note on these drugs and do not forget its significance .

For MAINS do you think it is high time we should boost innovation and research in Pharma sector ?

      ISSUE: 

Scientists at the Institute of Nano Science & Technology (INST) have developed a nanotechnology-based industry-friendly and low-cost method for the production of antiepileptic drug ‘Rufinamide’.  

  • Institute of Nanoscience and Technology are now increasingly producing a plethora of useful technologies and products that contribute to an AtamNirbhar Bharat.

ANTIPILEPTIC DRUGS
Anticonvulsants or antipileptic drugs are being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  • PRODUCTION : INST have developed a new recyclable copper-oxide catalyst, which plays a crucial role in the key reaction for producing the Rufinamide drug.

Rufinamide drug synthesis

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The developed catalyst is not only useful for the Rufinamide drug synthesis, but it is also for other organic transformation reactions.
  • The catalyst can be commercialized for academic use, as well as companies deal with fine chemicals that use these reactions.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Historic reforms initiated in the Space sector

      HEADLINES:

Historic reforms initiated in the Space sector

      WHY IN NEWS:

Private sector participation in Space activities approved

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Space
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Space

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS this is not important issue but skim through IN-SPACe .

For MAINS go through the key points and understand this much needed boost !

      ISSUE: 

Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi today approved far reaching reforms in the Space sector aimed at boosting private sector participation in the entire range of space activities.  

VITAL REFORMS :

  • SELF RELIANCE : The decision taken is in line with the long-term vision of the Prime Minister of transforming India and making the country self-reliant and technologically advanced.
  • ADVANCE CAPABILITIES : India is among a handful of countries with advanced capabilities in the space sector.

  The sector will receive new energy and dynamism, to help the country leapfrog to the next stages of space activities.

  • ACCELERATE GROWTH : This will not only result in an accelerated growth of this sector but will enable Indian Industry to be an important player in global space economy.
  • EMPLOYMENT : With this, there is an opportunity for large-scale employment in the technology sector and India becoming a Global technology powerhouse.

KEY BENEFITS :

  • TECHNOLOGICAL EXPANSION : Space sector can play a major catalytic role in the technological advancement and expansion of our Industrial base.
  • RESOURCE UTILISATION : The proposed reforms will enhance the socio-economic use of space assets and activities, including through improved access to space assets, data and facilities.

INDIAN NATIONAL SPACE PROMOTION AND AUTHORIZATION CENTRE (IN-SPACe)

The newly created Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre (IN-SPACe) will provide a level playing field for private companies to use Indian space infrastructure.

  • GUIDING PRIVATE SECTOR : It will also hand-hold, promote and guide the private industries in space activities through encouraging policies and a friendly regulatory environment.
  • DEMAND DRIVEN MODEL : The Public Sector Enterprise ‘New Space India Limited (NSIL)’ will endeavour to re-orient space activities from a ‘supply driven’ model to a ‘demand driven’ model, thereby ensuring optimum utilization of our space assets.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

These reforms will allow ISRO to focus more on research and development activities, new technologies, exploration missions and human spaceflight programme. Some of the planetary exploration missions will also be opened up to private sector through an ‘announcement of opportunity’ mechanism.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

Fight drug resistance : Kala- azar

      HEADLINES:

New biomolecules to fight drug resistance in Kala- azar

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS here we will concentate on Kala Azar only and finally look out to the recent discovery.With that being said , you need to understand the causes , parasite name , treatment and also NTD list !

For MAINS take a note on effective resistance shown by the parasites.

      ISSUE: 

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting almost 100 countries including India.  

CAUSED BY :

  It is caused by a parasite called Leishmania, which is transmitted through the bite of sand flies.

THERE ARE THREE MAIN FORMS OF LEISHMANIASIS

  • VISCERAL : Which affects multiple organs and is the most serious form of the disease,
  • CUTANEOUS : Which causes skin sores and is the most common form; and
  • MUCOCUTANEOUS : Which causes skin and mucosal lesion.

Visceral leishmaniasis, which is commonly known as Kala-azar in India, is fatal in over 95% of the cases, if left untreated.

TREATMENT AND DRUGS :

  The only drug available against leishmaniasis, miltefosine.

  • It is rapidly losing its effectiveness because of emerging resistance to this drug due to a decrease in its accumulation inside the parasite, which is necessary for the drug to kill the parasite.
  • Specific types of protein molecules, called transporter proteins, play a major role in carrying miltefosine into and out of the parasite’s body, which comprises a single cell.

  A protein called ‘P4ATPase-CDC50’, is responsible for intake of the drug by the parasite, and another protein, called ‘P-glycoprotein’, is responsible for throwing this drug out from within the parasite’s body.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Research group used computational methods to design small molecules, called peptides, that could very specifically interact with the transporter proteins of L. major alone, and not interfere with human proteins in any way.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

 

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