27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020-21 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2021.

“Either you run the day, or the day runs you.” – Jim Rohn

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2021

Today's Must Read Articles : Today's Must Read Articles :

Tectonically active zone in Himalayas

      HEADLINES:

Newly identified tectonically active zone in Himalayas could alter earthquake study & predictions

      WHY IN NEWS:

The study was published recently in the journal ‘Technophysics’.

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 : Geography

      ISSUE: 

The suture zone of the Himalayas or the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) in the Ladakh region where Indian and Asian Plates are joined has been found to be tectonically active, as against current understanding that it is a locked zone.

SUTURE ZONE IS ACTIVE

MAJOR IMPLICATIONS

  • This could have major impact in terms of earthquake study, prediction, understanding the seismic structure of the mountain chains well as its evolution.
  • Researchers carried out the mapping of the remote regions of Ladakh that forms the most hinterland part of the Himalaya.

KEY OBSERVATIONS

  • The geologists observed that sedimentary beds are tilted and thrust broken.
  • The rivers are associated with uplifted terraces, and the bedrock shows brittle deformation that occurred at much shallower depths.

OSL TECHNIQUE
These deformed geological features were then dated in the laboratory at Dehradun using a technique called Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL).

It is a method for carrying Luminescence dating of geological sediments and data of seismicity and denudation rate review.

  • The combination of field and lab data suggested the region of the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) has been neo-tectonically active since the last 78000 — 58000 years.
  • A recent earthquake in 2010 of low magnitude 4.0 near the village of Upshi that occurred due to a thrust rupture.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Himalaya were known to be made up of north dipping thrusts like the Main Central Thrust (MCT), the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), and the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT).

  • As per the established models, all of these thrusts except MFT are locked, and overall deformation in Himalaya is being accommodated only along with the MFT.
     SOURCES: PIB | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

New Age Sustainable Disinfectants : CAWACH

      HEADLINES:

New age sustainable disinfectants and sanitizers may bring relief from chemical ones with side effects

      WHY IN NEWS:

“The structures and processes which made these extraordinary achievements possible are being incorporated in the upcoming Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2020”

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health

      ISSUE: 

Suffering from dry, itching hands due to rinsing them multiple times with chemical disinfectants and soap as protection against contact infection of COVID 19 may soon be over.

THE NEED FOR STERILIZATION

  • A number of start-ups based in different parts of India are now armed with a range of sustainable alternatives .

They also include technologies for disinfection of the biomedical waste generated at hospitals and the use of novel nanomaterials .

  • These chemical process innovations for long-lasting & safe sterilization of the recurrent use surfaces.

CAWACH

  • Safe disinfection and sanitization technologies have come from a total of 10 companies supported for disinfectants and sanitizers.

This initiative is under Centre for Augmenting WAR with COVID-19 Health Crisis (CAWACH).

  • CAWACH is an initiative by the National Science & Technology Entrepreneurship Development Board (NSTEDB),
  • Department of Science and Technology (DST)

IMPLEMENTATION

  • Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SINE), IIT Bombay.

IMPORTANT INNOVATIONS

VAJRA

  • Mumbai based start-up Inphlox Water Systems –  design and develop a equipment disinfection to fight COVID 19 contamination titled VAJRA.
  • VAJRA Kavach-E (KE) uses advanced oxidation, electrostatic discharge, and UVC light spectrum to inactivate the viruses, bacteria, and other microbial strains present on the PPE.

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

COSMO

  • Coimbatore based Eta Purification offers advanced sterilization solutions. It is using environmentally-sound micro-cavity plasma technology.

The COSMO (Complete Sterilization by Microplasma Oxidation) system can rapidly disinfect Covid-19 infected areas, including quarantine facilities, ambulatory care etc.

  • This innovative micro-plasma sterilization system offers compact and scalable modular units which are robust, flexible, and energy-efficient.

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

ATULYA AND OPTIMASER

  • ATULYA is an instant microwave-based handheld steriliser ATULYA and a microwave-assisted cold sterilization device
  • OPTIMASER is microwave-assisted cold sterilisation superior technological advancement over the conventional Autoclave.

OPTIMASER make PPE reusable . It is from Lucknow based Maser Technology.

  • It allows for disinfection and sterilisation of the PPE Kits and the masks in order to ensure the 100 reusabilities, also ensuring the cost-effectiveness of the same.

OTHER INNOVATIONS

  • A mechanical hand sanitizing dispenser machine ; touchless, real-time monitoring via dashboard is offered by Chennai based startup MicroGO.

Weinnovate Biosolutions from Pune has developed silver nanoparticles based on non-alcoholic liquid sanitizer.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The structures and processes which made these extraordinary achievements possible are being incorporated in the upcoming Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2020.

     SOURCES: PIB | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Asan Conservation Reserve

      HEADLINES:

Asan Conservation Reserve becomes Uttarakhand’s first Ramsar site

      WHY IN NEWS:

Asan Conservation Reserve is home to many rare and endangered species like the Ruddy Shelduck, Red Crested Pochard, among others.

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Ramsar Site : Ecology : Wetlands

      ISSUE: 

Asan Conservation Reserve has become Uttarakhand’s first Ramsar site, making it a ‘Wetland of International Importance

ASAN CONSERVATION RESERVE

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

  • The Reserve is located on the banks of Yamuna river near Dehradun district in Garhwal region of the Himalayan state.
  • Ramsar declares Asan Conservation Reserve as a site of international importance.

Ramsar sites in India goes up to 38, the highest in South Asia and Uttarakhand gets its first Ramsar site.

  • It cleared the category on species and ecological communities, one on water-birds and another on fish.
  • The certificate was given on July 21, 2020 by the Secretary General, Convention on Wetlands.
  • Asan is spread across 4.44 sq km area in Dehradun district on the banks of Yamuna river.

FAUNA

Asan receives about 40 migratory species, including Rudy Shelduck, Common coot, Gadwall, Kingfisher, Indian cormorant, Baer’s pochard, Northern pintail, Bar-headed goose.

  • Many endangered birds are found here and some even migrate to the Reserve, making it an ecologically important site
  • The criteria cleared by Asan Conservation Reserve to get Ramsar site tag include that it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species.

It should supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity.

  • It should supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles .
  • Also it should be an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS

  • Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty adopted on February 2, 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar, on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.

The name of the Convention is usually written “Convention on Wetlands’’.

  • The Convention on Wetlands came into force for India on February 1, 1982.
  • Those wetlands which are of international importance are declared as Ramsar sites.
     SOURCES: HT| 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Amur falcons : ‘Birds of God’

      HEADLINES:

Once target of mass hunting in Northeast, ‘Birds of God’ are now rare symbol of hope

      WHY IN NEWS:

There has never been such a quick turnaround to a conservation project in India, where one year a species was being hunted and in the next, it stopped.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Conservation of Flora and Fauna

      ISSUE: 

What has made the project a true success was the involvement of the community.

THE MASS HARVEST

  • The mass harvesting of the bird — with one of the longest migratory routes, from Siberia to Africa — prompted governments, and wildlife experts, to launch a desperate conservation project.
  • After the hunt, the bird would be sold for Rs 25-30 a piece in markets, with a hunter earning anywhere between Rs 30,000-50,000 in a season.
  • Eight years ago, reports of around 1 lakh Amur falcons being hunted every day in Nagaland’s Wokha district, to be sold for their meat, had created a flutter across the world.

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

  • From breeding grounds in Siberia and northern China, these falcons migrate west, across the Arabian Sea, to Southern Africa, where they spend the winters.

For a period of about 10 years, during their brief stopover, around 15,000 birds were being harvested every day in Wokha.

  • Sometimes, experts say, the numbers even went up to 1 lakh a day.

SPIRITUAL LINK

  • In the far-off Tamenglong district of Manipur, Amur falcons had been hunted for 40 years.
  • But their ancestors believed that these were sacred birds.
  • They were called Ra Ruai or Birds of God.

They believed that whenever they arrived in large numbers, it would portend a good harvest. 

  • We reminded our people of our ancestral beliefs, and explained how important the birds were for the biodiversity of the area.
  • The Church pointed out that conservation of wildlife was also mentioned in the Bible.

AMUR FALCON

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

  • Amur Falcon is a small raptor of the falcon family.
  • Its a small, slender, pigeon-sized bird of prey, and is noteworthy for undertaking one of the longest and most arduous annual migrations of any bird of prey.

It breeds in south-eastern Siberia and Northern China before migrating in large flocks across India and over the Arabian Sea to winter in Southern Africa.

  • Males are dark grey with reddish brown thighs and undertail coverts; reddish orange eye-ring, cere, and feet.
  • Females are duller above, with dark scaly markings on white underparts, an orange eye ring, cere, and legs.

Their diet consists mainly of insects, such as termites; during migration over the sea, they are thought to feed on migrating dragonflies.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

Distribution and migration Amur Falcons are marathon migrants that pass through Nagaland on their migratory course to southern Africa from Far East Russia.

     SOURCES:THE IE | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Army to review border situation

      HEADLINES:

Army to review border situation

      WHY IN NEWS:

Readiness for winter deployment, human resource reforms on agenda of meet

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of defence
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Defence

      ISSUE: 

There will be a comprehensive review of the situation across all the borders including Ladakh

  • With the stand-off continuing along the disputed boundary in eastern Ladakh, the situation on the ground in Ladakh and the Army’s winter preparations will be reviewed at the highest level .

China has deployed close to 50,000 troops along the LAC, which has been matched by India.

  • The first day has been scheduled for deliberating on matters related to human resource management.

AIR DEFENCE COMMAND

  • Several studies are currently underway for the formation of integrated tri-service commands beginning with a joint air defence command.

Automation initiatives to optimise utilisation of manpower at various levels of the Army will also be discussed.
 

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

With no breakthrough in talks for disengagement, both sides have made preparations for deployment at high altitudes in the harsh winters.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Third India-US 2+2 ministerial meeting

      HEADLINES:

Jaishankar, Pompeo discuss bilateral, global issues ‘India has stakes in Afghanistan’s stability; cross-border terror completely unacceptable’

      WHY IN NEWS:

  • His statements assume significance in the wake of the increased violence in Afghanistan in recent days, leading to hundreds of casualties among combatants from both sides as well as among Afghan civilians.
  • India to sign geo-spatial cooperation deal with U.S.BECA signing at 2+2 dialogue today
MINISTRY? :- MEA
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : IR

      ISSUE: 

MEA also made it clear that cross-border terrorism was “completely unacceptable

  • India and the U.S. will sign the last foundational agreement, Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-Spatial cooperation (BECA) on Tuesday.
  • The 2+2 inter-ministerial talks are scheduled to be held on Tuesday morning.
  • The two Ministers expressed satisfaction that agreement of BECA will be signed during the visit.

BASIC EXCHANGE AND COOPERATION AGREEMENT

  • BECA will allow India to use the geospatial maps of the USA to get pinpoint military accuracy of automated hardware systems.
  • It will also allow information on weapons such as cruise and ballistic missiles.

BECA is an important precursor to India acquiring armed unmanned aerial vehicles such as the Predator-B from the USA.

  • Predator-B uses spatial data for accurate strikes on enemy targets.
  • BECA is one of the four foundational military communication agreements between the two countries.
  • The other three being GSOMIA, LEMOA, CISMOA.
  • Initially, India had reservations to geospatial mapping on the grounds of national security.
  •  They were later addressed by mutual dialogue and discussion between the two countries.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The two Ministers reviewed bilateral defence cooperation spanning “military-to-military cooperation, secure communication systems and information sharing, defence trade and industrial issues.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

Moon : Water water everywhere

      HEADLINES:

On the moon, water water everywhere and not a drop to drink

      WHY IN NEWS:

A team led by Casey Honniball of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland detected molecular water on the lunar surface, trapped within natural glasses or between debris grains.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1 : Geography

      ISSUE: 

The moon lacks the bodies of liquid water that are a hallmark of Earth but scientists said on Monday lunar water is more widespread than previously known

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis Moon

A total lunar eclipse, also known as a “blood moon“.

  • The water molecules trapped within mineral grains on the surface and more water perhaps hidden in ice patches residing in permanent shadows.
  • While research 11 years ago indicated water was relatively widespread in small amounts on the moon.

A team of scientists is now reporting the first unambiguous detection of water molecules on the lunar surface.

SIGNIFICANCE

  • Water is a precious resource and a relatively plentiful on lunar surface .
  • Its presence could prove important to future astronaut and robotic missions seeking to extract and utilize water for purposes such as a drinking supply or a fuel ingredient.

Previous observations have suffered from ambiguity between water and its molecular cousin hydroxyl, but the new detection used a method that yielded unambiguous findings. 

  • The only way for this water to survive on the sunlit lunar surfaces where it was observed was to be embedded within mineral grains, protecting it from the frigid and foreboding environment.
  • The researchers used data from the SOFIA airborne observatory, a Boeing 747SP aircraft modified to carry a telescope.

27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis Moon

 A high resolution mosaic of our moon’s north polar region is seen in this undated handout image taken by scientists using cameras aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).

  • The study focused upon so-called cold traps on the moon, regions of its surface that exist in a state of perpetual darkness where temperatures are below about negative 260 degrees Fahrenheit (negative 163 degrees Celsius).
  • That is cold enough that frozen water can remain stable for billions of years.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

OPEN QUESTIONS

  • Another mystery that remains unsolved is the source of the lunar water.
  • Currently, the major contenders are comets, asteroids or small interplanetary dust particles, the solar wind, and the moon itself through outgassing from volcanic eruptions.
  • Earth is a wet world, with vast salty oceans, large freshwater lakes and ice caps that serve as water reservoirs.
  • As our closest planetary companion, understanding the origins of water on the moon can also shed light on the origins of Earth’s water – still an open question in planetary science.
     SOURCES:THE IE | 27th Oct Current Affairs News Analysis

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