30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

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IASbhai Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2020.

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HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis | Prelims & Mains 2020

Mumbai maps its biodiversity

      HEADLINES:

Mumbai maps its biodiversity

      WHY IN NEWS:

Result of a citizen’s collective comprising Mumbaikars who wish to bring the issue to the forefront

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Conservation of Biodiversity

      ISSUE: 

In a first-of-its-kind attempt to visually empower Mumbai’s citizens with the resources they share the city with has been released.

30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis
  • This biodiversity map is part of a campaign Biodiversity by the Bay, initiated by a citizens’ collective.

A biodiversity map of the city to showcase the wildlife hotspots, mangrove forests, urban green spaces.

  • In Mumbai’s biodiversity map , 90 species that can be spotted in the city has been illustrated.
  • The map also pays tribute to the Warli and Koli communities, and the very spirit of Mumbai.

KOLI COMMUNITY

  • Koli, the caste of Original fishermen.
  • The Main occupation of Koli is Fishing.
  • They are adept in various methods of sea and river fishing.
  • They are regularly employed as a worker on a ferry.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

The campaign also includes an action plan on the protection of Lesser Flamingos and their habitats, given their significance to Mumbai.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU  | 30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis

Serum Institute of India (SII)

      HEADLINES:

SII commits to making 100 million more vaccine doses

      WHY IN NEWS:

Pune firm says 200 million shots will be available at $3 each

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      ISSUE: 

Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII) on Tuesday committed to producing an additional 100 million doses of the vaccines it is testing.

COST FACTOR

  • A total of 200 million doses will be available at $3 each to a group of at least 61 “low- and middle-income countries”, including India.
  • This arrangement does not make it clear how many doses will be made available to India.
  • The collaboration further bolsters up our fight against COVID-19.

INITIAL SEED FUNDING

  • The Gavi COVAX is an international collaboration involving the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness .
  • They have also devised an arrangement to ensure that all countries — irrespective of their wealth — are able to vaccinate a minimum percentage of their population.
  • To ensure that low- and middle-income countries countries do so, it is currently seeking at least $2 billion in initial seed funding.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Under the new collaboration, AstraZeneca’s candidate vaccine, if successful, will be available to 61 Gavi-eligible countries.
  • The Novavax candidate, if successful, will be available to all 92 countries supported by the Gavi COVAX AMC.
  • These countries align with SII’s licensing agreements with the two partners.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis

Amnesty International

      HEADLINES:

EU raises concerns over action against Amnesty

      WHY IN NEWS:

MHA defends ongoing investigation

MINISTRY? :- MHA
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: FDI

      ISSUE: 

Expressing “concerns” about the government’s investigation into Amnesty International (AI), the European Union said it hopes the global human rights agency can continue its work in India.

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

  • However, the government defended its actions, and said AI is in “clear contravention” of Indian law.
  • The action against AI including freezing their funds, followed a Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) inquiry.
  • It is part of the government’s scrutiny of more than 20 international NGOs including Greenpeace, Compassion International, and Ford Foundation, over the past few years.

In order to circumvent the FCRA regulations, Amnesty UK remitted large amounts of money to four entities registered in India, by classifying it as Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • A significant amount of foreign money was also remitted to Amnesty (India) without MHA’s approval under FCRA.
  • This malafide rerouting of money was in contravention of extant legal provisions,” said the MHA .
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis

Azerbaijan and Armenia War

      HEADLINES:

Why are Azerbaijan and Armenia fighting again?

      WHY IN NEWS:

Fresh clashes erupted on the Armenia-Azerbaijan border on Sunday, threatening to push the former Soviet republics back to war 26 years after a ceasefire was reached.

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 2 : IR

      ISSUE: 

The centre of the conflict is the Nagorno-Karabakh region

ROOTS OF THE CONFLICT

  • The largely mountainous and forested Nagorno-Karabakh, home for some 150,000 people, is at the centre of the conflict.
  • Nagorno-Karabakh is located within Azerbaijan but is populated, mostly, by those of Armenian ethnicity.
  • The conflict can be traced back to the pre-Soviet era when the region was at the meeting point of Ottoman, Russian and the Persian empires.

Moscow gave Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan but offered autonomy to the contested region.

  • In the 1980s, when the Soviet power was receding, separatist currents picked up in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • In 1988, the national assembly voted to dissolve the region’s autonomous status and join Armenia.
  • When Armenia and Azerbaijan became independent after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the clashes led to an open war in which tens of thousands were killed.
  • The war lasted till 1994 when both sides reached a ceasefire.
  • By that time, Armenia had taken control of Nagorno-Karabakh and handed it to Armenian rebels.
  • The rebels have declared independence, but have not won recognition from any country.
  • The region is still treated as a part of Azerbaijan by the international community, and Baku wants to take it back.

CURRENT CLASHES

  • Despite the ceasefire, there were occasional flare-ups on the border. In July this year, at least 16 people were killed in clashes.
  • After Sunday’s violence, Azerbaijan and Armenia blamed each other. Baku said it was forced to respond after Armenian attacks killed and wounded Azeris.
  • Armenia, on the other side, blamed Azerbaijan for launching the “large-scale” attack targeting peaceful settlements.
  • The energy-rich Azerbaijan has built several gas and oil pipelines across the Caucasus to Turkey and Europe.

This includes the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the Western Route Export oil pipeline, the Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline and the South Caucasus gas pipeline.

  • Some of these pipelines pass close to the conflict zone.
  • In an open war between the two countries, the pipelines could be targeted, which would impact energy supplies.

TURKEY’S ROLE

  • Turkey has historically supported Azerbaijan and has had a troublesome relationship with Armenia.
  • In the 1990s, during the war, Turkey closed its border with Armenia and it has no diplomatic relations with the country.
  • On the other end, the Azeris and Turks share strong cultural and historical links.

Azerbaijanis are a Turkic ethnic group and their language is from the Turkic family.

  • After Azerbaijan became independent, Turkey established strong relations with the country, which has been ruled by a dynastic dictatorship.
  • In July, after the border clashes, Turkey held a joint military exercise with Azerbaijan.
  • On September 28, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan blamed Armenia for the most recent clashes and offered support to Azerbaijan.
  • This fits well into Ankara’s aggressive foreign policy, which seeks to expand Turkish interests to the former Ottoman territories.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

RUSSIA’S STAND

  • Moscow sees the Caucasus and Central Asian region as its backyard.
  • But the current clashes put President Vladimir Putin in a difficult spot.
  • Russia enjoys good ties with both Azerbaijan and Armenia and supplies weapons to both.
  • But Armenia is more dependent on Russia than the energy-rich, ambitious Azerbaijan.
  • Russia also has a military base in Armenia.
  • But Moscow, at least publicly, is trying to strike a balance between the two.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | 30th Sep Current Affairs News Analysis

 

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