4th June 2020 | UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS| PRELIMS & MAINS |

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Daily UPSC Current Affairs | 4th June 2020

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Daily Current Affairs for UPSC PRELIMS & MAINS 2020 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2020.

“To live a creative life, we must lose our fear of being wrong.” –Anonymous

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

Pan-India Real Time Market in electricity

      HEADLINES:

Union Power Minister launches pan-India Real Time Market in electricity:
Indian power market moves closer to real time

      WHY IN NEWS:

Shri R. K. Singh, the Minister of State (IC) Power and New & Renewable Energy & Minister of State (Skill Development and Entrepreneurship),  launched pan-India Real Time Market in electricity through video conference in New Delhi, on 03rd June, 2020.

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Power
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Energy

      ISSUE: 

  This has placed Indian electricity market amongst a league of few electricity markets in the world, which have real time market.

WHO IS IMPLEMENTING ?

  • National Load Despatch Centre-POSOCO is facilitating necessary automation in coordination with power exchanges to ensure faster transactions and settlements in the real time market framework.

KEY FEATURES :

  Real time market is an organized market platform to enable the buyers and sellers pan-India to meet their energy requirement closer to real time of operation.

  • OPTIMAL UTILIZATION : Introduction of real time market will bring required flexibility in the market to provide real time balance while ensuring optimal utilization of the available surplus capacity in the system.
  • MANAGE DEMAND : It will also help manage diversity in the demand pattern in the country with an organized market at national level.
  • AUCTION : Real time market would be for every 30 minutes in a day based on double sided closed auction with uniform price.
  • The concept of “Gate Closure” has been introduced for bringing in the desired firmness in schedules during the hours of market operation.
  • Buyers/sellers shall have the option of placing buy/sell bids for each 15-minute time block.
  • The proposed real time market would provide an alternate mechanism for Discoms to access larger market at competitive price.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  The Government of India’s target of 175 GW RE Capacity by 2022 is driving accelerated renewable penetration pan-India.

  • The real time market would help to mitigate challenges to the grid management due to intermittent and variable nature of renewable energy generation and therefore, help to integrate higher quantum of renewable energy resources into the grid.
  • It is win win for all stakeholders generators having opportunity to sale their surpluses, better management of variability of RE generation, better utilization of transmission systems, discoms opportunity to buy or sell power and finally consumer getting reliable power supply.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

 Remdesivir

      HEADLINES:

COVID-19: Centre doesn’t clarify basis for CDSCO authorising remdesivir

      WHY IN NEWS:

Government also does not provide clarity about whether remdesivir should be given to only severe patients

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Drugs:Health:Diseases

      ISSUE: 

The Central Drug Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) has granted approval for the emergency use of ‘remdesivir’ to treat novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients.  

The US FDA has already provided emergency authorisation for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients. Photo: Flickr

The US FDA has already provided emergency authorisation for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients. Photo: Flickr The US FDA has already provided emergency authorisation for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients.

 MANUFACTURING COMPANY’S TAKEAWAY :

  • The company that holds the patent for the drug —Gilead Inc or the Indian firms that have been granted licence for manufacturing by Gilead (Cipla and Hetero Labs) — presented was not immediately clear.

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA RESPONSE :

  • The government also did not provide clarity about whether remdesivir should be given to only severe patients.

US FDA APPROVAL :

  • The US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) had granted an emergency use authorisation for remdesivir to be used for treating COVID-19 patients.
  • This was granted on the basis of a randomised control trial (RCT) conducted by US-based National Institute of Disease and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and an observational study by Gilead Inc itself.
  • The NIAID trial, that was conducted on 1,093 patients, suggested that the time of recovery was 11 days as against 15 days in case of those who did not receive the drug.
  • However, another RCT conducted on 237 severe patients in Hubei (an erstwhile epicentre of the outbreak) found no significant clinical benefit in patients who were administered the drug as compared to those who were not.
  • An important limitation of this trial was that it was underpowered.

DOSAGE :

  • The US FDA advises a dosage of 200 milligrams (mg) on day 1, followed by 100 mg for another nine days, infused intravenously, in adults.
  • It can be extended for another five days if required.
  • What dosage Indian patients would be administered is not clear.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

ONGOING TRIALS 

  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is a participating agency in the ‘Solidarity Trial’— a global trial anchored by the World Health Organization — for this drug.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

NGT : Environment compensation regime

      HEADLINES:

NGT wants environment compensation regime for non-complying CETPs

      WHY IN NEWS:

NGT directives to CPCB to develop environmental compensation regime for non-complying CETPs may act as deterrence against non-compliance

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Environmental Pollution :CBCB

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS keep an eye on the formula !

For MAINS can imposing environmental compensation fines can prove as an effective deterrence mechanism?

      ISSUE: 

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has asked the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to submit information regarding compliance and non-compliance of effluent treatment plants, sewage treatment plants and common effluent treatment plants in the country.  

About 191 Common effluent treatment plants (CETP) are operational in India. Photo: Monali Zeya

  • It has also asked the green body to evolve an environmental compensation regime for such non-complying plants not meeting the prescribed discharge standards.
  • The CPCB in May 2020 submitted a compliance report to the NGTin an order dated August 28, 2019 regarding non-complying wastewater treatment plants operating across several states in India.
  • On being asked about environmental compensation regime for non-compliant CETPs, the NGT was informed by CPCB about a formula to levy environmental compensation on any defaulting industry.

THE FORMULA IS AS FOLLOWS:

EC = PI x N x R x S x LF

  • EC is Environmental Compensation in rupees
  • PI is Pollution Index
  • N is number of days of non-compliance
  • R is factor in rupees for EC
  • S is factor for scale of operation
  • LF is factor for location of the industry.

  Environmental compensation can be levied by CPCB only when it has issued directions to the non-complying unit under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Imposing environmental compensation fines can prove as an effective deterrence mechanism.
  • But developing a mechanism is remains a challenge for regulatory authorities.
  • Strict governance is the need of the hour and such systems can fast track compliance.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Surviving heatwaves:Lessons from France

      HEADLINES:

Surviving heatwaves: What can India learn from France

      WHY IN NEWS:

Heatwave events caused 22,223 deaths from 1992 to 2015 in India

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health

      LEARNING: 

For MAINS note down the key planning measures . This can be a question in next mains !

      ISSUE: 

  A large part of India reeled under the season’s first major heatwave in the last week of May 2020.

Ambient temperature in Delhi hit 47.5 degree Celsius on May 27 — the hottest day recorded in May in 18 years. Photo: Vikas Choudhary

  • Heatwaves are responsible for the second highest number of deaths after floods in India from natural events.
  • They caused 22,223 deaths from 1992 to 2015 across the country.
  • Some cities and states have even formulated heat wave action plans, but India has not notified it as a disaster event so far.
  • France, among other countries in Europe experiencing frequent heatwave events, has developed national action plans to tackle the problem.
  • After 15,000 people died in the 2003 heat wave event, France put in place its first national heatwave action plan.
  • It is updated every year and has helped the country to reduce mortality and health consequences.
  • The National Public Health Agency (ANSP) of France informs people through a press release about the vigilance and action plan.
  • It provides all the information material such as form leaflets and information brochure etc to regional health services, local administration and the associative network, which is then distributed to the general public.
  • The information materials are also specifically developed and implemented based on the needs of the department (equivalent of a municipal body in India), keeping in mind the identified vulnerable population.

COMMUNICATING THE DANGER

  • For a successful implementation of the plan, communication (preventive and during heat wave events) forms an important part of the action plan.
  • Local bodies, regional health services, central health services and central administration coordinate among each other to maintain consistency of communication.
  • Media, such as television and radio, are effectively used to disseminate information on a regular basis during the emergency phase — when heatwaves are declared.
  • It is then that television, radio and other platforms are used to disseminate information.

HEATWAVE LEVELS

  • Heatwave warning levels and the vigilance required are assigned coloursYellow (level 2), Orange (level 3) and Red (level 4).
  • Level 2 warning (Yellow), where heat wave is forecast for one-two days, asks for implementation of graduated measures, but mostly a beefed-up communication and activation of heat wave telephone information service.
  • Level 3 warning (Orange) is activated by the department concerned and represents a dangerous situation, during which the public is advised to keep abreast with latest developments and follow advice issue by public authorities.
  • In addition to national heat wave hotline, a local heatwave hotline is opened for the public for health advice.
  • The department, depending on the local needs, mostly relies on the ORSEC system.

WHEN IT GETS RED HOT

  • A level 4 warning (Red) is triggered for a possibly intense and long-lasting heatwave event, which is declared by the health ministry.
  • During red alert, communication, implementation and coordination of special measures are put in force, both at national and local level.
  • For instance, in Paris elderly homes were provided ‘cool’ rooms equipped with air conditioners or shaded or faced north direction.
  • Further, school outings and sports events were cancelled, and public and private firms allowed more and more people to work from home.
  • Every townhall is required to keep a register of all its senior citizens.
  • Identification of the vulnerable population is critical in the success of the action plan.
  • The National Heat wave action plan is revised each year.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Result: France has been able to cut heatwave induced death toll by 90 per cent since 2003.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

DISCOVER MORE : Important Daily Current Affairs for UPSC PRELIMS 2020

 

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