Assessment of Climate Change Report | UPSC

Assessment of Climate Change Report UPSC

Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region Report-MOES

      HEADLINES:

Spike in sea temperatures, cyclones increase in Indian Ocean region: Report

      WHY IN NEWS:

Temperature rise 0.3°C higher than the global average of 0.7°C; last two years see significant rise in number, intensity and unpredictability of cyclones

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Earth Sciences
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS  1 :3:Reports : Sea Surface Temperature : Geography : Global Warming

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS we have analysed the report in depth ! Note down key point like what are the unexpected changes . You should also go through important definitions – Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Heat Flux .

For MAINS

      ISSUE: 

Increasing sea surface temperatures in the tropical Indian Ocean and an increase in frequency of very severe cyclones in the region were pointed out by the first climate change assessment report published by the Union Ministry of Earth Sciences on June 17, 2020.

Sea surface temperatures in the tropical Indian Ocean rose by one degree Celsius (°C) on average between 1951-2015, said the report Photo: Wallpaper Flare

ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE OVER THE INDIAN REGION

KEY TAKEAWAYS :

TEMPERATURE RISE : Sea surface temperatures in the tropical Indian Ocean rose by one degree Celsius on average between 1951-2015.

This temperature rise was 0.3°C higher than the global average of 0.7°C.

OCEAN HEAT CONTENT : Ocean heat content in the top 700 metres of the tropical Indian Ocean also rose with the past two decades displaying an abrupt rise.

OCEANS ABSORBING GHG : Oceans absorb around 90 per cent of the warming caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that can, in turn, lead to more intense cyclones, sea level rise and faster melting of polar ice shelves.

SEA LEVEL RISE : Sea levels in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) region rose by 3.3 millimetres every year between 1993 and 2017.

This is almost double the maximum rate of 1.75 mm per year measured between 1874 and 2004.  

CYCLONE FREQUENCY : Overall frequency of cyclones decreased in the latter half of the last century and the first two decades of the 21st century.

CHANGING RAINFALL PATTERNS : Rainfall patterns have changed.There are longer dry spells intermittent with heavy rainfall events.

PROJECTED TEMPERATURE CHANGE :Temperatures are projected to rise by 2.7°C by 2040 and 4.4°C by the end of the century.

CATASTROPHIC COMPOUND EFFECTS:

COMPOUND EVENTS:
  An intense cyclone may be accompanied by heavy rain and storm surges as in the case of the recent cyclones. Droughts may occur along with heatwaves,” .

  • Local environments, with high population densities and land use conditions can increase risk and vulnerability to such events as well.
  • The chances of such events overlapping were also large, multiplying the threat.

India also needs to take up more attribution and modelling studies to understand climate change impacts in a clearer way.  

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • All these trends will continue to rise if GHG emissions are not curbed.
  • Global warming from GHG emissions presents unique challenges for India.
  • This also held significance for regional geopolitical stability, as vulnerabilities of the country’s neighbours end up becoming national security and humanitarian crises.

“Adaptation to expected impacts will be the most critical with efforts to mitigate the impacts,”#Example : Afforestation and mangrove forest recovery.

     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

 

DISCOVER MORE : Important Reports for UPSC Prelims 2020

 

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