Challenges for NEP 2020 | UPSC
Education and NEP
WHY IN NEWS:
What has the draft National Education Policy, 2020 proposed? What are the major challenges?
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Education
For MAINS this is a very important issue . Kindly write separate answer on this . We have aggregated major points here .
- The Union Cabinet approved a new National Education Policy on July 29, after a 34-year gap.
- NOT DISCUSSED YET : The new NEP, approved by the Cabinet, has not been presented in Parliament.
- FINAL IMPLEMENTATION : Implementation of its proposals depends on further regulations by both States and the Centre as education is a concurrent subject.
WHAT ARE THE KEY PROPOSALS?
- CURRICULAR STRUCTURE : The NEP proposes to change the school curricular structure from the current 10+2 (Class 1-10 of general education followed by two years of higher secondary school with specialised subjects) with a 5+3+3+4 structure.
- VOCATIONAL TRAINING : A mission for foundational literacy and numeracy, free breakfasts being added to free lunches in government schools, vocational education along with internships from Class 6.
- GLOBAL REACH : Top foreign universities will be allowed to set up campuses in India.
WHAT IS THE TIMELINE FOR IMPLEMENTATION?
- LONG-OVERDUE : The policy is meant to transform the education system by 2040.
- There are over 100 action points from the Policy.
- Implementation will be done in phases, based on time, region and types of institutions with Institutes of Eminence (IoEs)
- Central Universities will be taking the lead.
FEW VISIBLE CHANGES
- MULTIPLE ENTRY-EXIT : Four-year undergraduate degrees with multiple entry-exit options will be introduced in the 20 IoEs from the 2020-21 academic year.
- EXISTING STUDENTS : Existing M.Phil students can continue until they complete their degree, although new admissions for the programme will not be accepted.
- NATIONAL TESTING AGENCY : The National Testing Agency will introduce a pilot version of the common entrance test by December 2020, which will be used for admission to all IoEs and central universities in 2021.
- ACADEMIC CREDIT BANK : Some IIT’s are working on developing the technical structure of the Academic Credit Bank, which will also be established by December.
- NUMERACY MISSION : The National Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Mission which is to be implemented by 2025 will be launched by the end of this year.
- NEW FRAMEWORK : The NCERT will introduce the curricular framework for the new school structure, including early childhood care, by the next academic year.
WHERE DO THE DIFFICULTIES LIE?
- LEGAL MANDATE : Some of the proposals require legal changes.
- HECI : The draft Higher Education Commission of India Bill has been languishing in the Ministry for over a year, but is likely to be published for feedback by September.
- AMENDMENTS : The proposal for a Board of Governors for universities may also require amendments of the Central and State Universities Acts.
- ACT : A Cabinet note has already been moved to set up the National Research Foundation as a trust under the government, but in order to make it a fully autonomous body, an Act may be required.
- BUDGETARY ALLOCATION : Free breakfasts can only be considered in the next academic year if a budget allocation is made to cover it.
- FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE : The process of converting affiliated colleges into degree granting autonomous institutions needs financial assistance for the states.
- UNACCOMPLISHED TARGETS : Such an increase in funding has been proposed but not achieved for the last half-century.
- MEDIUM OF EDUCATION : The proposal to make the mother tongue the medium of instruction till Class 5, which has stirred up the fiercest debates, is dependent on State governments.