Climate Action Pressure on Developing Countries | UPSC

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IASbhai Daily Editorial Hunt | 18th Sep 2020

Everything is either an opportunity to grow or an obstacle to keep you from growing. You get to choose.– Wayne Dyer

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Editorial Hunt is an initiative to dilute major Editorials of leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Here we choose two editorials on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC MAINS 2020.

EDITORIAL HUNT #144 :“Climate Action Pressure on Developing Countries

Climate Action Pressure on Developing CountriesClimate Action Pressure on Developing Countries

T. Jayaraman | Tejal Kanitkar
Climate Action Pressure on Developing Countries

T. Jayaraman is with the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai. Tejal Kanitkar is with the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

      HEADLINES:

Reject this inequitable climate proposal

      CENTRAL THEME:

The UN Secretary General’s recent advice to India amounts to asking for its virtual de-industrialisation and stagnation

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 1: 3 : Climate Change : Energy

      MAINS QUESTION:

Current state of climate action is sufficient to engage India in developmental activities. Do you think the ball is in the court of Developed Countries now? Analyse  -(GS 3)

      LEARNING: 

  • Piling Pressure on Developing Countries
  • First World Strategy
  • Indian Demand-Supply Chain

      INTRODUCTION: 

The UN Secretary General António Guterres’s call for India to give up coal immediately.

  • He emphasises to reduce emissions by 45% by 2030 .
  • This is a call to de-industrialise the country and abandon the population to a permanent low-development trap.

      BODY: 

PILING ON THE PRESSURE

  • CLIMATE DIPLOMACY : Mr. Guterres called on India to make no new investment in coal after 2020.
  • EVEN-HANDED APPEAL : Superficially framed and appealed to all G20 nations, it was in reality a deliberate setting aside of the foundational principles of the (UNFCCC) .

This distinguish sharply between the responsibilities and commitments of developed countries vis-à-vis those of developing countries.

  • CONTRACTION : India, with the lowest per capita income among the G-20, is undergoing the worst economic contraction among them currently.

INDIA’S TRACK RECORD

  • RENEWABLE TARGETS : Its renewable energy programme is ambitious while its energy efficiency programme is delivering, especially in the domestic consumption sector.
  • COMPLIANCES : India is one of the few countries with at least 2° Celsius warming compliant climate action, and one of a much smaller in list fulfilling PCA.
  • NET EMISSIONS : India’s annual emissions is at 0.5 tonnes per capita, are well below the global average of 1.3 tonnes.

China, the United States and the European Union (EU) per capita emissions are higher than this average

  • CUMULATIVE EMISSIONS : India’s contribution by 2017 was only 4% for a population of 1.3 billion, whereas the EU, with a population of only 448 million, was responsible for 20%.

A FIRST WORLD STRATEGY

  • BRUNT OF CLIMATE MITIGATION : While unable to summon up the domestic political support required for climate action, First world have turned up to pressurising the developing countries .
  • THE USA WITHDRAWAL : The U.S. for its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, or called out the EU nations for their long-term reliance on gas and oil while hiding behind their overwhelming rhetorical focus on coal.

FIRST WORLD STRATEGY ON CLIMATE ACTION

  • Demonising of coal mining and coal-based power generation

Promoting claims that immediate climate mitigation would miraculously lower domestic inequalities 

  • Ensure climate adaptation
  • Promoting Third World natural resources as active sites of mitigation and not adaptation
  • Promoting theories of “de-growth” or the neglect of industrial and agricultural productivity.

      IASbhai Windup: 

ENDING COAL INVESTMENT

  • CONSEQUENCES : Currently, roughly 2 GW of coal-based generation is being decommissioned per year, which implies that by 2030, India will have only 184 GW of coal-based generation.
  • SUBSTITUTE : Unlike the developed nations, India cannot substitute coal substantially by oil and gas and despite some wind potential, a huge part of this growth needs to come from solar.
  • RISING DEMAND : None of this will really drive industry, particularly manufacturing, since renewables at best can meet residential consumption and some part of the demand from the service sector.
  • COPENHAGEN ACCORD : The Copenhagen Accord signalled the end of legally binding commitments to emissions reduction by the developed countries.

Since then technology development in climate change mitigation technologies has registered a significant fall

  • FALLING PATENTS : Annual filing of patents shows a marked decline, ranging between 30% to 50% or more from 2009-10 to 2017, across all subsectors and across all developed countries, without exception.
       SOURCES:   THE HINDU EDITORIAL HUNT | Climate Action Pressure on Developing Countries

 

TRENDING NOW : Important The Hindu Editorials 

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