Everything About REDD+ Initiative | UPSC

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Everything About REDD+ Initiative _ UPSC

Everything About REDD+ Initiative | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

Shifting forest finance toward a rights-based REDD+

      WHY IN NEWS:

The case for finance to flow to carbon sinks and forest communities, on the contrary, is stronger

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: Carbon emission : REDD+ : Paris Climate Agreement

      LEARNING: 

This article emphasises on lacunae of REDD+ and building a right based approach . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

Criticisms of REDD+ may leave the impression that this is an uncertain avenue for climate finance.

REDD+ INITIATIVE

Everything About REDD+ Initiative

  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) has emerged as a prominent carbon-sequestration mechanism since its adoption in 2007 at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties (COP) 13 in Bali.

REDD+ seeks to incentivise developing countries by creating financial value for stored carbon in forests.

  • It offers a potentially fast and cheap means to achieve the Paris Agreement goal of keeping global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius over pre-industrialised era.

RESULTS-BASED PAYMENT MECHANISM

TARGETING FIVE ACTIVITIES

  • Reducing emissions from deforestation
  • Reducing emissions from forest degradation
  • Conservation of carbon stocks
  • Sustainable management of forests
  • Enhancement of carbon stocks

BENEFICIARIES

Brazil became one of the first countries to receive results-based aid last year.

  • This year, Uganda became eligible for REDD+ payments, the first African country to do so.

AGREEMENT SAFEGUARDING REDD+ INITIATIVES

CANCUN AGREEMENTS

The Cancun Agreements were adopted at COP 16  to mitigate negative impacts of REDD+ activities.

  • This includes the requirement for respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples.
  • Members of local communities and the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders.

WARSAW FRAMEWORK

In order to receive results-based finances from REDD+ implementation, the Warsaw Framework was implemented.

  • This requires a recipient country to develop a system for providing information on how safeguards are addressed and respected.
  • This can be based on contractual requirements of multilateral funds for project-based REDD+ activities.

GREEN CLIMATE FUND

The Green Climate Fund (GCF), allocated $500 million for its pilot programme for REDD+ results-based payments.

  • It has also adopted an ‘Indigenous Peoples Policy’ which is applicable to GCF-financed activities in REDD+ actions.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH REDD+

  • Violation of rights of potentially affected communities and increased socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities
  • Adoption of a top-down approach that can disrupt traditional forest management.
  • Shortcomings in enforcement and implementation  can prevent benefits from reaching indigenous peoples
  • Major roadblocks for homogenous application of safeguards are social, economic and political factors in each country
  • Case studies focused on participation in REDD+ project activities are testament to the limited stakeholder consultation in affected communities.

In Guyana and Indonesia, Reports found prevalence of uneven awareness, with women and poorer villagers being less informed about project activities.

RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH

  • In the absence of tangible co-benefits , Countries should at the very least adopt a ‘do no harm’ approach.

This may be achieved by building a credible grievance mechanism throughout the readiness and implementation process.
 

  • Actively engaging indigenous peoples in the decision-making process.
  • Focusing on capacity building efforts at the grassroots level.

BOTTOM-UP APPROACH

  • This involves restructuring of the forest management system by adopting a decentralised approach in developing countries
  • Which entails a greater share of rights, responsibilities and decision-making power with the local communities.

In the Indian context, for instance, decentralisation of forest rights and community-based forest governance was identified as critical to the success of REDD+ initiatives .

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

CAPACITY BUILDING FOR MEANINGFUL PARTICIPATION

The process for meaningful engagement, improving outreach and providing opportunities for inclusive decision-making to be truly beneficial to local communities and indigenous people.

  • Methods for measuring forest carbon and establishing the creation of truly ‘additional’ carbon sinks are not standardized yet.

Appropriate monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) protocols are needed.

  • Community-centered recommendations may also offer a strong guide through the additionality problem.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB | Rights-based REDD+ Initiative | UPSC

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