Goliath Frog | UPSC

Goliath Frog UPSC

Goliath Frog | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

World Rainforest Day

      WHY IN NEWS:

Goliath frog population is estimated to have halved in the last 15 years

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Conservation of Biodiversity : IUCN

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS go through IUCN status and threats ! Well there is a map question associated with this issue . Mt Nlonako ; Map this today itself !

      ISSUE: 

Frogs are perhaps the least-studied species in the diverse ecosystems of Central Africa.  

Goliath frog population

The Goliath Frog, found in the rainforests of central Africa, is the largest amphibian in the world. Photo: istock The Goliath Frog, found in the rainforests of central Africa, is the largest amphibian in the world.
  • According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Amphibian Red list Assessment of 2008, about 1,856 species of amphibians are globally threatened, making them the most threatened species, compared to mammals and birds.

GOLIATH FROG

  • Conraua goliath, also known as ‘goliath frog’ is the largest frog in the world.

FEATURES :

  • Adult individuals weighing as much as 2.99 kilograms and measuring more than 33 centimetres (cm) in length, excluding their legs, when fully grown.

And their eyes are about 2.5 cm wide, which is larger than the average eye size of humans.
 

  • They are found only in the tropical rainforest of central Africa, within the south western part of Cameroon and north of Equatorial Guinea.
  • Scientists believe the goliath frog has been around for over 250 million years.

 They build nests for their eggs and tadpoles by moving rocks more than half of their body weight.

THREATS :

  • This species has a limited geographic distribution, narrow ecological requirements and is largely hunted by the local communities in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea for consumption and pet trade.
  • Goliath frogs are exported to the US for participation in frog jumping contests.
  • Climate change, deforestation, commercial agriculture, and over-hunting are some of the prime causes driving this species to extinction.

  As a result, the goliath frog has been classified as an ‘endangered species’ by IUCN .

  • The total population of goliath frogs has dropped by at least 50 per cent over the last 15 years.
  • They are on the brink of extinction, warn local amphibian conservationists.

  Habitat lost and encroachment has significantly contributed to the dwindling population of goliath frog in the tropical rainforest of Mount Nlonako.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Deforestation is one of the principal causes for shrinking habitat and fragmentation in this area.
  • About 90 per cent of the local population depends on agriculture as a source of primary livelihood.
  • Hydroelectric dams are also a potential threat to this species.
  • To make the situation worse, excessive application of chemical agro-inputs and toxic waste disposal such as pesticides, fertilisers and effluents from agriculture harms herpetological species through mortality and reduced reproductive success rate.
     SOURCES:DownToEarth | Goliath Frog | UPSC

 

DISCOVER MORE : Important IUCN Issues for Prelims 2020

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