Goliath Frog | UPSC
World Rainforest Day
WHY IN NEWS:
Goliath frog population is estimated to have halved in the last 15 years
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Conservation of Biodiversity : IUCN
For PRELIMS go through IUCN status and threats ! Well there is a map question associated with this issue . Mt Nlonako ; Map this today itself !
- According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Amphibian Red list Assessment of 2008, about 1,856 species of amphibians are globally threatened, making them the most threatened species, compared to mammals and birds.
- Conraua goliath, also known as ‘goliath frog’ is the largest frog in the world.
- Adult individuals weighing as much as 2.99 kilograms and measuring more than 33 centimetres (cm) in length, excluding their legs, when fully grown.
- They are found only in the tropical rainforest of central Africa, within the south western part of Cameroon and north of Equatorial Guinea.
- Scientists believe the goliath frog has been around for over 250 million years.
- This species has a limited geographic distribution, narrow ecological requirements and is largely hunted by the local communities in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea for consumption and pet trade.
- Goliath frogs are exported to the US for participation in frog jumping contests.
- Climate change, deforestation, commercial agriculture, and over-hunting are some of the prime causes driving this species to extinction.
- The total population of goliath frogs has dropped by at least 50 per cent over the last 15 years.
- They are on the brink of extinction, warn local amphibian conservationists.
- Deforestation is one of the principal causes for shrinking habitat and fragmentation in this area.
- About 90 per cent of the local population depends on agriculture as a source of primary livelihood.
- Hydroelectric dams are also a potential threat to this species.
- To make the situation worse, excessive application of chemical agro-inputs and toxic waste disposal such as pesticides, fertilisers and effluents from agriculture harms herpetological species through mortality and reduced reproductive success rate.
SOURCES:DownToEarth | Goliath Frog | UPSC