Roadmap for Digital Cooperation | UPSC

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IASbhai Daily Editorial Hunt | 30th  July 2020

“In my experience, there is only one motivation, and that is desire. No reasons or principle contain it or stand against it.” –Jane Smiley

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Editorial Hunt is an initiative to dilute major Editorials of leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Here we choose two editorials on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC MAINS 2020.

EDITORIAL HUNT #110 :“Roadmap for Digital Cooperation

Roadmap for Digital Cooperation

Syed Akbaruddin

Syed Akbaruddin has served as India’s Permanent Representative at the United Nations

      HEADLINES:

A quest for order amid cyber insecurity

      CENTRAL THEME:

Better arrangements and intense partnerships, but with extra safeguards, are needed in a more contested domain

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: CYBER SECURITY

      MAINS QUESTION:

Roadmap for Digital Cooperation, gently calls for action. Comment-(GS 3)

      LEARNING: 

  • Different types of Cyber Issues
  • Global Stand on Cyber Issues
  • To-do list

      INTRODUCTION: 

  In cyberspace, it is the best of times for some and the worst of times for others.

  • PHISHING ON RISE : In one week in April 2020, reportedly,18 million daily malware and phishing emails related to COVID-19 monitored by a single email provider.
  • SPAMMING : in addition to more than 240 million COVID-19-related daily spam messages.
  • RANSOMWARE : Twitter hackers collected $120,000 in full public gaze, while a “ransomware” target in California quietly paid 116.4 bitcoins or $1.14 million.
  • STATE ORGANIZED CRIMES : Australia mentioned of attacks by a state actor.

China has been accused of hacking health-care institutions in the United States.

  • HACKERS : The United Kingdom has warned of hackers backed by the Russian state targeting pharmaceutical companies.
  • BANNING APP : The ban on specified Chinese Apps, on grounds of sovereignty and integrity of India” adds another layer of complexity to the contestation in cyberspace.

Cyber insecurity of individuals, organisations and states is expanding amidst COVID-19.

  • UNDERSTANDING PARAMETERS : While we are embracing new ways of digital interaction and more of our critical infrastructure is going digital.
  • EXPERT AREA : Like global public health, cybersecurity is a niche area, left to experts.

We need a better understanding of the global cyberspace architecture .

      BODY: 

NO GLOBAL COMMONS

  • INCONCLUSIVE WAR : Borderless cyberspace, as a part of the “global commonsdoes not exist.
  • MYTHS : It is an illusion that connectivity across national boundaries nurtured.
  • CONTROL : The Internet depends on physical infrastructure that is under national control.

Each state applies its laws to national networks, consistent with its international commitments.

  • RESPONSIBILITY : States are responsible for cybersecurity , enforcement of laws and protection of public good.
  • JURISDICTION OF INTERNET : The infrastructure on which the Internet rests falls within jurisdictions of many states with differing approaches.

Cyberspace has multiple stakeholders, not all of which are states.

  • NON-STATE ACTORS : Many networks are private, with objectives differing from those of states.
  • TOOL BOX : Finally cybertools are dual use, cheap and make attribution and verification of actions quite a task.
  • EAGLES EYE : Nevertheless, states alone have the rights of oversight.

GAPS IN CURRENT PROCESSES

  • FIRST TRUMPETS : It was in 1998 that Russia inscribed the issue of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in UN.
  •  GOVERNMENTAL EXPERTS : Since then six Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) with two-year terms and limited membership have functioned .
  • OPEN GROUP LAST YEAR : An Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) began last year with a broadly similar mandate, but open to all.

FLAWS

  • LESS INTEREST : More than 100 states evinced interest.
  • REPORTS : It is meandering along, with a report likely next year.
  • FOCUS : The discussions are narrowly focused in line with the mandate of the forum that set it up.

Issues such as Internet governance, development, espionage, and digital privacy are kept out.

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT : While terrorism and crime are acknowledged as important, discussion on these has not been focused on in other UN bodies.
  • NET RESULT : The net result of the UN exercise has been an acceptance that international law and the UN Charter are applicable in cyberspace.

      IASbhai Windup: 

MORE ENGAGEMENT NEEDED

Generally the growth of technology is way ahead of the development of associated norms and institutions.

  • Cyberspace is experiencing this too.
  • ANALYSING FOOTPRINTS : As India’s cyber footprint expands, so will space for conflicts and crimes.
  • TEAM : We have a very active nodal agency for cybersecurity in the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In).
  • REPRESENTATION : India has had representatives on five of the six GGEs, and participated actively at the OEWG.

India joined the Christchurch Call which brought together countries and companies to stop promoting terrorism and violent extremism through social media.
 

TO-DO LIST

  • THE NEXT PHASE : This requires better arrangements and more intense partnerships, but with more safeguards.
  • CLARITY :  We need the clarity that adoption of a data protection legislation will bring.

Globally, we need to partake in shaping cybernorms.

  • PRIVATE PLAYERS : We need to encourage our private sector to get involved more in industry-focused processes such as the Microsoft-initiated Cybersecurity Tech Accord and the Siemens-led Charter of Trust.
  • MULTI-STAKE PREPARATION : Engagement in multi-stakeholder orientations such as the Paris Call (for trust and security in cyberspace) can help.
  • DEEPER UNDERSTANDING : In preparation for the larger role that cyberspace will inevitably play in Indian lives, we need a deeper public understanding of its various dimensions.

“Cyberspace is too important to be left only to the experts.”

       SOURCES:   THE HINDU EDITORIAL| Roadmap for Digital Cooperation | UPSC

 

TRENDING NOW : Important The Hindu Editorials 

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