UPSC CURRENT AFFAIRS| PRELIMS & MAINS | 22nd May 2020

Daily UPSC Current Affairs | 22nd May 2020

Dear Aspirants
IASbhai Daily Current Affairs for UPSC PRELIMS & MAINS 2020 is an initiative to dilute major articles from leading Newspapers in India which are most relevant to UPSC preparation –‘THE HINDU, LIVEMINT , INDIAN EXPRESS’ and help millions of readers who find difficulty in answer writing and making notes everyday. Hence we choose articles on daily basis and analyse them with respect to UPSC PRELIMS 2020.

Believe in yourself. You are braver than you think, more talented than you know, and capable of more than you imagine.– Roy T. Bennett

HIGHLIGHT INFO:

ORANGE COLOUR: Important for Prelims.

RED COLOUR: Important for Mains.

BLACK COLOUR: Must Read !

BLUE COLOUR : Important Links/Survey.

PINK COLOUR: Reports/Themes/Summits.

National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC)

      HEADLINES:

NCMC reviews Rescue and Relief operations in cyclone hit areas of Odisha and West Bengal

      WHY IN NEWS:

Hot from PIB !

MINISTRY? :- Ministry of Home Affairs
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Disaster management

      ISSUE: 

Cabinet Secretary ShriRajiv Gauba today chaired the meeting of the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC), which reviewed the situation in the cyclone affected areas of Odisha and West Bengal with the States and Central Ministries/Agencies concerned in the aftermath of cyclone Amphan.  

NATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE

  • National Crisis Management Committee is a committee set up by the Government of India in the wake of a natural calamity for effective coordination and implementation of relief measures and operations.

  It is headed by Cabinet Secretary.

  • On the constitution of such a committee, the Agriculture Secretary shall provide all necessary information to and seek directions.
  • A National Crisis Management Committee(NCMC) has been constituted in the Cabinet Secretariat.

THE COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE IS AS UNDER:-

  • Cabinet Secretary Chairman,
  • Secretary to Prime Minister Member,
  • Secretary (MHA) Member, Secretary (MCD) Member,
  • Director (IB) Member, Secretary (R&AW) Member,
  • Secretary (Agri & Coopn.) Co-opted Member,
  • An officer of Cabinet Secretariat. Convenor

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

At the national level, Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) and National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) are the key committees involved in the top-level decision-making with respect to Disaster Management (DM).

     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Khadi Masks to Hit Foreign Markets

      HEADLINES:

Local to Global: Khadi Masks to Hit Foreign Markets

      WHY IN NEWS:

The widely popular Khadi face mask is set to go “global”.

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Micro,Small & Medium Enterprises
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:MSME : Recent Innovations

      ISSUE: 

The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) will now explore the possibility of exporting the Khadi cotton and silk face masks to foreign countries after the Ministry of Commerce and Industries lifted the ban on export of non-medical/ non-surgical masks of all types.  

  • The move comes days after the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s “Local to Global” call in wake of the “Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan”.
  • KVIC has developed double layered and triple-layered Cotton as well as Silk face masks respectively, available in two colors for men and in multiple colors for women.
  • The KVIC has so far received orders to supply 8 lakh masks.

WHY KHADI MASK ?

  • These masks prepared from Double Twisted khadi fabric not only meet the quality and scale of demand but are cost effective, breathable, washable, reusable and bio-degradable” .
  • Double Twisted Khadi fabric  provides an easy passage for the air to pass through.
  • What makes these masks more special is the hand-spun and hand-woven cotton and Silk fabrics.

  Cotton acts as a mechanical barrier while Silk is an Electrostatic barrier.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The KVIC plans to supply khadi face masks in countries like Dubai, USA, Mauritius and several European and Middle East countries where Khadi’s popularity has significantly grown over the last few years.
  • The export of Khadi masks will lead to spike in production and ultimately create large scale employment opportunity for artisans in India,”.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Preventing memory loss due to Alzheimer

      HEADLINES:

IIT Guwahati discovers new ways to prevent memory loss due to Alzheimer

      WHY IN NEWS:

Researchers at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati has worked on out-of-the-box ideas that can help prevent or reduce short-term memory losses associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Health:Diseases

      ISSUE: 

  They studied the neurochemical principles of Alzheimer’s, and explored new ways to prevent accumulation of neurotoxic molecules in the brain that are associated with short-term memory loss.  

ALZHEIMER :

  • India as it has the third highest number of Alzheimer’s patients in the world, after China and US.
  • Approximately hundred potential drugs for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease have failed between 1998 and 2011.
  • A defining hallmark of Alzheimer’s is the accumulation of amyloid beta peptides in the brain.

RESEARCH
The IIT Guwahati team reports interesting methods such as application of low-voltage electric field, and the use of ‘trojan peptides’ to arrest aggregation of neurotoxic molecules in the brain.

RESULT :

  • The development of a cure for Alzheimer’s disease assumes importance , with more than four million people falling prey to the memory loss associated with it.

  IIT Guwahati scientists found that application of a low-voltage, safe electrical field can reduce the formation and accumulation of toxic neurodegenerative molecules that cause short-term memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease.

  • While current treatments only alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease, there is no disruptive therapeutic approach yet that can treat the underlying causes of Alzheimer’s.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • The researchers have designed Trojan peptides by adopting a similar approach of ‘deceit’ to impede the aggregation of the amyloid peptide, arrest the formation of toxic fibrillar assemblies, and reduce poisoning of nerve cells that leads to memory loss.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

Eliminate rice crop residue burning

      HEADLINES:

Alternative dwarfing genes in wheat can eliminate rice crop residue burning

      WHY IN NEWS:

The lead Scientist Dr. Ravindra Patil along with his team from Genetics and Plant Breeding Group, ARI have mapped the dwarfing genes on chromosome 6A in durum wheat, and DNA-based markers were developed for a better selection of these genes in wheat breeding lines.

MINISTRY? :-Ministry of Science & Technology
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3:Agriculture

      ISSUE: 

  In India, close to twenty-three million tonnes of leftover rice residues are annually burnt by farmers to get rid of the straw and prepare their fields for sowing wheat, which is the next crop, resulting in air pollution.  

BACKGROUND:

  • The presently available semi-dwarf wheat varieties, which were explored during the Green Revolution, carry conventional Rht1 dwarfing alleles (variant form of a given gene) and produce optimum yields under high-fertility irrigated conditions.
  • Also, dry environments pose a challenge for the germination of wheat varieties with short coleoptile.
  • To overcome these problems, Scientists at Pune based Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, have mapped two alternative dwarfing genes Rht14 and Rht18 in wheat.

Rht14 and Rht18 DWARFING GENES :

  These genes are associated with better seedling vigour and longer coleoptiles (sheath protecting the young shoot tip).

  • The DNA-based markers will help wheat breeders to precisely select wheat lines carrying these alternative dwarfing genes from a massive pool of wheat breeding lines.
  • Wheat lines with these alternative dwarfing genes, apart from reducing crop residue burning, can allow deeper sowing of wheat seeds to avail advantage of residual moisture in the soil under dry environments.
  • Burning of leftover rice crop residue has serious implications for the environment, soil, and human health.
  • Dwarfing genes Rht14 and Rht18 in wheat conferred a plant height reduction comparable to the Rht1 alleles while retaining early vigour in wheat seedlings, but do not affect coleoptile length and seedling shoot length.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • These lines will also allow deeper sowing of wheat seeds to avail advantage of residual moisture in the soil, therefore, saving valuable water resources and reduce the cost of cultivation to farmers.
     SOURCES:THE HINDU & PIB/DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS for UPSC CSE Prelims & Mains

DISCOVER MORE : Important Daily Current Affairs for UPSC PRELIMS 2020

 

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