World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC
World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020
WHY IN NEWS:
SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: AMR : Anti-Microbial Resistance : Diseases
For PRELIMS it is important to understand the concept of AMR and global initiatives worldwide. Do not forget the theme.
For MAINS go through the significance , objective , prevention and control measures . Let us dive in !
WORLD ANTIMICROBIAL AWARENESS WEEK (WAAW)
- Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections.
- Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant.
- These bacteria may infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria.
- World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) aims to increase awareness of global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) .
- Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites resist the effects of medications.
- This makes common infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.
- Antimicrobials are agents that are critical tools for fighting diseases in humans, animals and plants and include antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal medicines.
- The slogan for 2020 will be “Antimicrobials: handle with care” applicable to all sectors.
The Tripartite Organizations –
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
- Held annually since 2015 ,the event has achieved considerable success throughout these years.
MULTIPLE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE
- Including overuse of medicines in humans
- Livestock, and agriculture
- Poor access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene
- Expanding the scope of the campaign to all antimicrobials will facilitate a more inclusive global response.
- A global action plan to tackle the growing problem of resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines was endorsed at the Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly in May 2015.
- One of the key objectives of the plan is to improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication, education and training.
ANTIMICROBIALS: HANDLE WITH CARE
WHAT IS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE?
- AMR occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines.
- Tripartite partners call for- all sectors of society to rally around a bold, unified agenda to defeat this global health and development threat.
- Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
WHY IS AMR INCREASING?
- Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in humans, animals and plants – are the main drivers in the development of drug-resistant infections.
- Poor medical prescribing practices and patient adherence to treatment also contribute.
- Often they are incorrectly prescribed for those illnesses, or taken without proper medical oversight.
- Antibiotics are also commonly overused in farm animals and agriculture.
- Lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals .
- COVID-19 – The misuse of antibiotics during COVID-19 pandemic could lead to accelerated emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
- At the Sixty-eight World Health Assembly in May 2015, the World Health Assembly endorsed a global action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance.
- Antimicrobial resistance is occurring everywhere in the world, compromising our ability to treat infectious diseases.
- Also, ensuring safe medicines that are quality-assured, used in a responsible way, and accessible to all who need them.
To achieve this goal, the global action plan sets out five strategic objectives:
- To improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance;
- To strengthen knowledge through surveillance and research
- To reduce the incidence of infection
- To optimize the use of antimicrobial agents
- Increase investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions.
SOURCES : WHO
- Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today.
- Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
- Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
- Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
- Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world.
- New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases.
- Without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill.
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
- Antibiotic resistance is accelerated by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, as well as poor infection prevention and control.
- Steps can be taken at all levels of society to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance.
To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, individuals can:
- Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional.
- Always follow your health worker’s advice when using antibiotics.
- Never share or use leftover antibiotics.
- Prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically and keeping vaccinations up to date.
To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, policy makers can:
- Ensure a robust national action plan to tackle antibiotic resistance is in place.
- Strengthen policies, programmes, and implementation of infection prevention and control measures.
- Regulate and promote the appropriate use and disposal of quality medicines.
World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | SOURCES : WHO
To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, health professionals can:
- Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment are clean.
- Report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams.
- Talk to your patients about how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance and the dangers of misuse.
- Talk to your patients about preventing infections.
World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | SOURCES : WHO
To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, the agriculture sector can:
- Only give antibiotics to animals under veterinary supervision.
- Vaccinate animals to reduce the need for antibiotics and use alternatives to antibiotics when available.
- Promote and apply good practices at all steps of production and processing of foods from animal and plant sources.
- Improve biosecurity on farms and prevent infections through improved hygiene and animal welfare.
- When infections can no longer be treated by first-line antibiotics, more expensive medicines must be used.
- Antibiotic resistance is putting the achievements of modern medicine at risk.
- Organ transplantations, chemotherapy and surgeries such as caesarean sections become much more dangerous without effective antibiotics.
- Tackling antibiotic resistance is a high priority for WHO.
- A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance, including antibiotic resistance, was endorsed at the World Health Assembly in May 2015.
WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance:
THE GLOBAL ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (GLASS) :
- The WHO-supported system supports a standardized approach to the collection, analysis and sharing of data related to antimicrobial resistance .
- This is at a global level to inform decision-making, drive local, national and regional action.
GLOBAL ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP (GARDP) :
- It is a joint initiative of WHO and Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi)
- By 2023, the partnership aims to develop and deliver up to four new treatments, through improvement of existing antibiotics and new antibiotic drugs.
INTERAGENCY COORDINATION GROUP ON ANTIMICROBIAl RESISTANCE (IACG) :
- The United Nations Secretary-General has established IACG .
- Investment in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics and other tools.
- There are some new antibiotics in development.
- Given the ease and frequency with which people now travel, antibiotic resistance is a global problem, requiring efforts from all nations and many sectors.
ASPIRANTS ! LET US JOIN THIS MOVEMENT
- Since 2017, WHO has called on people across the Region to take a Pledge to create a community of committed individuals .
- These individuals are Stewards for the Future helping to stop the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials .
- As we celebrate World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) on 18-24 November, we urge you to take the pledge, become Stewards for the Future and stand as One Region, One Movement to Fight AMR.
SOURCES: DownToEarth | World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC