World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

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World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

      HEADLINES:

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020

      WHY IN NEWS:

It is celebrated from 18th – 24th November 2020

SYLLABUS COVERED: GS 3: AMR : Anti-Microbial Resistance : Diseases

      LEARNING: 

For PRELIMS it is important to understand the concept of AMR and global initiatives worldwide. Do not forget the theme.

For MAINS go through the significance , objective , prevention and control measures . Let us dive in !

      ISSUE: 

WORLD ANTIMICROBIAL AWARENESS WEEK (WAAW)

  • Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines.

  • Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant.
  • These bacteria may infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria.

AIM

  • World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) aims to increase awareness of global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) .

WAAW is to encourage best practices among the general public, health workers and policy makers to avoid the further emergence and spread of drug-resistant infections. 

  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites resist the effects of medications.
  • This makes common infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.
  • Antimicrobials are agents that are critical tools for fighting diseases in humans, animals and plants and include antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal medicines.

SLOGAN 2020

  • The slogan for 2020 will be “Antimicrobials: handle with care” applicable to all sectors.

THEME 2020

The theme for the human health sector for WAAW 2020 is “United to preserve antimicrobials“.

ORGANIZERS

The Tripartite Organizations –

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
  • WHO.

TIMELINE

The Tripartite Executive Committee has decided to fix WAAW dates to 18-24 November every year starting from 2020.

  • Held annually since 2015 ,the event has achieved considerable success throughout these years.

MULTIPLE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE

  • Including overuse of medicines in humans
  • Livestock, and agriculture
  • Poor access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene

SIGNIFICANCE

  • Expanding the scope of the campaign to all antimicrobials will facilitate a more inclusive global response.

This will support a multi-sectoral One Health Approach with increased stakeholder engagement.

  • A global action plan to tackle the growing problem of resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines was endorsed at the Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly in May 2015.
  • One of the key objectives of the plan is to improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication, education and training.

ANTIMICROBIALS: HANDLE WITH CARE

WHAT IS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE?

  • AMR occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines.

This makes common infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. 

  • Tripartite partners call for- all sectors of society to rally around a bold, unified agenda to defeat this global health and development threat.
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.

WHY IS AMR INCREASING?

  • Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in humans, animals and plants – are the main drivers in the development of drug-resistant infections.
  • Poor medical prescribing practices and patient adherence to treatment also contribute.

Antibiotics kill bacteria, but they cannot kill viral infections like colds and flu.

  • Often they are incorrectly prescribed for those illnesses, or taken without proper medical oversight.
  • Antibiotics are also commonly overused in farm animals and agriculture.
  • Lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals .
  • COVID-19 – The misuse of antibiotics during COVID-19 pandemic could lead to accelerated emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

GLOBAL ACTION PLAN ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE

  • At the Sixty-eight World Health Assembly in May 2015, the World Health Assembly endorsed a global action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance.
  • Antimicrobial resistance is occurring everywhere in the world, compromising our ability to treat infectious diseases.

The goal of the draft global action plan is to ensure continuity of successful treatment and prevention of infectious diseases . 
 

  • Also, ensuring safe medicines that are quality-assured, used in a responsible way, and accessible to all who need them.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

To achieve this goal, the global action plan sets out five strategic objectives:

  1. To improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance;
  2. To strengthen knowledge through surveillance and research
  3. To reduce the incidence of infection
  4. To optimize the use of antimicrobial agents
  5. Increase investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions.

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

SOURCES : WHO

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

KEY FACTS

  • Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today.
  • Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country.
  • Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.

EXAMPLE
A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat.

  • Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.

SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM

  • Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world.
  • New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases.

Where antibiotics can be bought for human or animal use without a prescription, the emergence and spread of resistance is made worse.

  • Without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill.

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • Antibiotic resistance is accelerated by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, as well as poor infection prevention and control.
  • Steps can be taken at all levels of society to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance.

INDIVIDUALS

To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, individuals can:

  • Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional.

Never demand antibiotics if your health worker says you don’t need them.

  • Always follow your health worker’s advice when using antibiotics.
  • Never share or use leftover antibiotics.
  • Prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically and keeping vaccinations up to date.

POLICY MAKERS

To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, policy makers can:

  • Ensure a robust national action plan to tackle antibiotic resistance is in place.

Improve surveillance of antibiotic-resistant infections. 

  • Strengthen policies, programmes, and implementation of infection prevention and control measures.
  • Regulate and promote the appropriate use and disposal of quality medicines.

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | SOURCES : WHO

HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, health professionals can:

  • Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment are clean.

Only prescribe and dispense antibiotics when they are needed, according to current guidelines.

  • Report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams.
  • Talk to your patients about how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance and the dangers of misuse.
  • Talk to your patients about preventing infections.

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | SOURCES : WHO

AGRICULTURE SECTOR

To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, the agriculture sector can:

  • Only give antibiotics to animals under veterinary supervision.

Not use antibiotics for growth promotion or to prevent diseases in healthy animals.

  • Vaccinate animals to reduce the need for antibiotics and use alternatives to antibiotics when available.
  • Promote and apply good practices at all steps of production and processing of foods from animal and plant sources.
  • Improve biosecurity on farms and prevent infections through improved hygiene and animal welfare.

IMPACT

  • When infections can no longer be treated by first-line antibiotics, more expensive medicines must be used.

A longer duration of illness and treatment, often in hospitals, increases health care costs as well as the economic burden on families and societies.
 

  • Antibiotic resistance is putting the achievements of modern medicine at risk.
  • Organ transplantations, chemotherapy and surgeries such as caesarean sections become much more dangerous without effective antibiotics.

WHO RESPONSE

  • Tackling antibiotic resistance is a high priority for WHO.
  • A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance, including antibiotic resistance, was endorsed at the World Health Assembly in May 2015.

The global action plan aims to ensure prevention and treatment of infectious diseases with safe and effective medicines.

WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance:

THE GLOBAL ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (GLASS) :

  • The WHO-supported system supports a standardized approach to the collection, analysis and sharing of data related to antimicrobial resistance .
  • This is at a global level to inform decision-making, drive local, national and regional action.

GLOBAL ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP (GARDP) :

  • It is a joint initiative of WHO and Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi)

GARDP encourages research and development through public-private partnerships. 

  • By 2023, the partnership aims to develop and deliver up to four new treatments, through improvement of existing antibiotics and new antibiotic drugs.

INTERAGENCY COORDINATION GROUP ON ANTIMICROBIAl RESISTANCE (IACG) :

  • The United Nations Secretary-General has established IACG .

It is to improve coordination between international organizations and to ensure effective global action against this threat to health security.

      IASbhai WINDUP: 

  • Investment in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics and other tools.
  • There are some new antibiotics in development.

None of the new antibiotics are expected to be effective against the most dangerous forms of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  • Given the ease and frequency with which people now travel, antibiotic resistance is a global problem, requiring efforts from all nations and many sectors.

ASPIRANTS ! LET US JOIN THIS MOVEMENT

  • Since 2017, WHO has called on people across the Region to take a Pledge to create a community of committed individuals .
  • These individuals  are Stewards for the Future helping to stop the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials .
  • As we celebrate World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) on 18-24 November, we urge you to take the pledge, become Stewards for the Future and stand as One Region, One Movement to Fight AMR.

Please click this link to take the pledge today!

     SOURCES:  DownToEarth  | World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 | UPSC

 

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